Who was Isma'il of Sennar?
Isma'il was the ruler of the Kingdom of Sennar. He was the son of king Badi IV, and brother of his predecessor Nasir.
The Scottish traveller James Bruce was his unwilling guest from 1 May to 5 September 1772, and acted as a physician to Isma'il's three wives. Bruce left this portrait of Isma'il:
Bruce summarized Isma'il's political position at the time of his visit as follows, based on conversations with the Royal Executioner, Ahmed Sid el-Koum:
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