Christopher Columbus

Explorer, Author

1451 – 1506


Who was Christopher Columbus?

Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.

In the context of emerging western imperialism and economic competition between European kingdoms seeking wealth through the establishment of trade routes and colonies, Columbus' speculative proposal, to reach the East Indies by sailing westward, eventually received the support of the Spanish crown, which saw in it a chance to gain the upper hand over rival powers in the contest for the lucrative spice trade with Asia. During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.


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Oct 1, 1451
Also known as
  • Columbus
  • Christophorus Columbus
  • Cristóbal Colón
  • Cristòfor Colom
  • Cristóvão Colombo
  • Cristoforo Colombo
  • Christoffa Corombo
  • Catholicism
  • Republic of Genoa
Lived in
  • Portugal
    (1476 - )
  • Porto Santo Island
    (1479 - 1485)
May 20, 1506

on July 23, 2013

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