Philosopher, Deceased Person

– 2023


Who was Zichan?

Zichan, also known as Gongsun Qiao, was a statesman of the State of Zheng in ancient China during the Spring and Autumn Period. His ancestral surname was Ji. A grandson of Duke Mu of Zheng, Zichan served as prime minister of Zheng from 544 BC until his death. Under Zichan, Zheng managed to expand its territory, a difficult task for a small state surrounded by several large states. As a philosopher, Zichan separated the domains of heaven and the human world, arguing against superstition and believing that humans should be grounded in reality.

Zichan was responsible for many reforms that strengthened the state of Zheng. A realist, Zichan was heavily involved in all aspects of the state, reforming agricultural and commercial laws, setting the borders, centralizing the state, ensuring the hiring of capable ministers, and changing social norms. Zichan once prevented other ministers from executing a man for criticizing the government, arguing that it was in the best interests of the state to listen to the opinions of the common people.

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  • China
Mar 29, 2023

on July 23, 2013


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"Zichan." Biographies.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2023. Web. 29 Mar. 2023. <https://www.biographies.net/people/en/zi_chan>.

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